Refuting the Dogma
of Incarnation and Restriction of God
By Dr. Ahmed Adeeb Ahmed
All the campaigns launched against our khusaibite Nusairite Alawite creed were due to their rejection of the creed of monotheism that we believe in. Our great masters, Abu Shu’ayb Muhammad Ibn Nusayer and Al-Husain Ibn Hamdan al-Khusaybi (AS) responded to those who believe in the Incarnation, the analogy and the gainsay.
Others do not search or scrutinize in their masters’ books and they are the ones who believe in God’s incarnation and restriction. We will review what is written in their books, and respond to it.
Ibn Taymiyyah, known as the Sheikh Al-Islam, believes in the Incarnation of God, where he says:” God sits on the throne, and has been allocated a place to sit with his Messenger”.
He also says in his book Majmu’ AI-Fatawa: “God sits with Muhammad on the throne!!”. Also, he says in the same book:” When God sits on the chair, it will crackle like a new luggage!!”. He thinks that God is a king sitting on the bed in a high place, and looks at the world beneath him, and that he has a large heavy body, like a huge man.
In the book named Talbis Al-Jahmiyyah Ibn Taymiyyah says: “God is on the throne and the angels bearing the throne feel his weight!!”
Ibn al-Qayyim al-Jawziyya, his disciple, says in the book of Badae AI-Fawaid:” God sits with His Messenger on the throne!!”. Also, He says in the book layers of Al-Hanbala: “God Almighty on the throne puts his feet on the chair”!
Ibn Taymiyyah believes in the Incarnation of God when he claims that “the Prophet saw his Lord in the form of a young man with thick hair, his feet in a garden, wearing gold shoes and sitting on a bed of gold”. He hints here to Yazid bin Mu’awiy, whom he worshiped, because he was on the doctrine of Uday Ibn Musafir, and this is mentioned in the introduction to his book Al-Wasiyya al-Kubra (The Greatest Commandment).
Ibn Taymiyyah believed in the Incarnation, as he claimed: “The masters of the Sunnis believe that God has a body and has the components and attributes of human bodies, and that there is no evidence to negate these qualities nor to negate the incarnation, and this is something that the followers of AlSunna and Algamaa is agreed upon”.
Shiites also believe in incarnation, where Mirza Mohammed Taqi known as (Hajjat al-Islam) says: “God visits Hussein and shakes hands and sits with him on a bed”!! He also says: “The Lord visits them (Imams) and shakes hands with them, and they sit with him on one bed, because worship and divinity become one concept”.
Muhammad Ibn Ibrahim Sadr al-Din al-Shirazi, known as (Ṣadr al-Muti’allihin), says: “The fire is still feeling pain because of the lack of fullness, until God puts his foot in it, one of the feet mentioned in the chair”. Muhammad Husayn Tabataba’i says in his book Interpretation of the balance: “God put his foot in the fire”. This goes in line with Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti’s point of view.
Our master Imam Al-Sadiq (AS) has warned of the people of Hyperbole (Al-Gulat) who believe in the incarnation of God (Al-Hulul), so he said: “The extremists are the evilest humans; they belittle God Almighty”.
Our master Al-Khusaybi (AS) refuted the people of Hyperbole and Incarnation and stressed that God does not enter into the body. He said (AS) “God is not embodied in the body, nor contained by a body; He is higher and greater than the restriction”.
Therefore, whoever believes that God is embodied in the flesh; he makes Him divisible and limitable.
Furthermore, whoever claims that God has actually an essence or a body in his essence he likens God to creatures, as God Almighty says: “No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all vision: He is above all comprehension, yet is acquainted with all things” (6:103).
Amir al-mu’minin Imam Ali (peace be from him) says: “Imagination cannot catch any of His divine attributes. Hearts cannot entertain belief about His nature. Multiplicity and division cannot be applied to Him”.
The theophany in the Alawite Nussayrite creed is that we affirm the existence of God, because the knowledge of the tokens which indicate His existence is the beginning of worship’ path, according to Amir al-mu’minin Imam Ali (peace be from him) who says: “The first stage in religion is the knowledge”. Knowing that the manifestation of God (theophany) does not mean the Incarnation, because the Incarnation means that God has a type and enter the body, and this is incorrect.
Ibn Taymiyyah did not understand the sayings of the infallible imams (peace be upon them) about the glorification of God, so that he misguided all the Sunnis, when he made God subject to the place, saying “God is in a place above the world”. Also, he says in his book Reasonable consent: “God Almighty has a limit, which is not known by anyone else, and it is not permissible for anyone to fancy his limit, but only must believe in the limit and assigns the knowledge of that to God!!”.
He also says in his book called The Foundation in The Response to The Basis of Sanctification: “You said: He is not a body or an essence, nor is he biased, nor is he on a direction, nor is he referred to in any sense, and he is not distinguished from anything, and you have expressed that he is not divisible or composite, and that there he has no limit, meaning that it is not possible for him to have a limit or worth, or to have an infinite worth! How can this negation be accepted without a book or a Sunnah?”.
Our master al-Khussaiby (AS) warned of polytheism when he said: “God is not limited and does not fall under the limit, but he is also not none, so as not to negate the existence of God”. He depends on the words of Amir al-mu’minin Imam Ali (peace be from him): “He is not confined by limits, nor counted by numbers. Material parts can surround things of their own kind, and organs can point out things similar to themselves”. Also he says: “God whom the height of intellectual courage cannot appreciate, and the diving’s of understanding cannot reach him; He for whose description no limit has been laid down, no attributes exists, no time is ordained and no duration is fixed”.
“Thus whoever attaches attributes to God recognizes His like, and whoever recognizes His like regards Him two; and whoever regards Him as two recognizes parts for Him; If God were limited, he would have been a body, and the Creator should not be a body, otherwise he would have been like creatures, and this is not permissible”.
In conclusion, whoever limits the essence of God has disbelieved, because God is higher than the visual and the rational, according to Imam Al-Sadiq (AS) who said: “God is not like anything and nothing like him”.
God is known before the limits, his essence has no limit and nothing greater than him so that to conceal him, and no similar to him and no peer or against.
This is the balance of the Khusaybite monotheism, which is not understood by the people of incarnation who claim to be a Muslim, while they try to camouflage themselves, and falsely accuse us of the charge of incarnation. However, they cannot because we always face them with our words.
Explanation of terms used:
- Creed: a system of a religious belief; a faith.
- Incarnation: A person who embodies in the flesh a deity, spirit, or abstract quality.
- Al-Hulul= Incarnation.
- Restriction: A limiting condition or measure, especially a legal one.
- Monotheism: The doctrine or belief that there is only one God.
- Gainsay: Deny or contradict (a fact or statement).
- Analogy: A comparison between two things, typically on the basis of their structure and for the purpose of explanation or clarification.
- Throne: A ceremonial chair for a sovereign, bishop, or similar figure.
- Doctrine: A belief or set of beliefs held and taught by a church, political party, or other group.
- Divinity: The state or quality of being divine.
- Hyperbole: Exaggerated statements or claims not meant to be taken literally.
- Theophany: A visible manifestation to humankind of God or a god.
- Tokens: A thing serving as a visible or tangible representation of a fact, quality, feeling, etc.
- Manifestation: An event, action, or object that clearly shows or embodies something, especially a theory or an abstract idea. the action or fact of showing something.
- Type: 1-a category of people or things having common characteristics. 2-a person or thing symbolizing or exemplifying the ideal or defining characteristics of something.
- Infallible: The quality of being infallible; the inability to be wrong.
- Polytheism: The belief in or worship of more than one god.
- None: By no amount; not at all; Nothingness.
- Rational: Based on or in accordance with reason or logic.
- Visual: Of or relating to seeing or sight.
The Alawite religious scholar Dr. Ahmed Adeeb Ahmed
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